After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Use the systems development process outlined in this chapter, and the model of
IS components from Chapter 1 as problem-solving frameworks to help you propose information systems solutions to simple business
2. Describe and give examples to illustrate how you might use each of the steps
of the information systems development cycle to develop and implement a business information system.
3. Explain how prototyping improves the process of systems development for end users
and IS specialists.
4. Identify the activities involved in the implementation of new information systems.
5. Describe several evaluation factors that should be considered in evaluating the
acquisition of hardware, software, and IS services.
6. Identify several change management solutions for end user resistance to the implementation
of new information systems.
The Systems Development
Cycle. Business end users and IS specialists may use a systems
approach to help them develop information system solutions to meet business opportunities. This frequently involves a systems
development cycle where IS specialists and end users conceive, design, and implement business systems. The stages, activities,
and products of the information systems development cycle are summarized in Figure 10.3.
Prototyping is a major alternative methodology to the traditional
information systems development cycle. It includes the use of prototyping tools and methodologies, which promote an iterative,
interactive process that develops prototypes of user interfaces and other information system components. See Figure 10.4.
End User Development.
The application development capabilities built into many end
user software packages have made it easier for end users to develop their own business applications. End users should focus
their development efforts on the system components of business processes that can benefit from the use of information technology,
as summarized in Figure 10.16.
IS. The implementation process for information system projects
is summarized in Figure 10.30. Implementation involves acquisition, testing, documentation, training, installation, and conversion
activities that transform a newly designed business system into an operational system for end users.
Software, and Services. Business professionals should know how
to evaluate the acquisition of information system resources. IT vendors' proposals should be based on specifications developed
during the design stage of systems development. A formal evaluation process reduces the possibility of incorrect or unnecessary
purchases of hardware or software. Several major evaluation factors, summarized in Figures 10.23, 10.24, and 10.25, can be
used to evaluate hardware, software, and IS services.
Business Change. Implementation activities include managing
the introduction and implementation of changes in business processes, organizational structures, job assignments, and work
relationships resulting from business/IT strategies and applications such as e-business initiatives, reengineering projects,
supply chain alliances, and the introduction of new technologies. Companies use change management tactics such as user involvement
in business/IT planning and systems development to reduce and user resistance and maximize acceptance of business changes
by all stakeholders.