IT: Refers to any technology controlled
The Benefits are:
- Business can benefit by being closer to customers & suppliers.
- reduce Cost &
- becoming more Efficient
& more Effective.
- IT help businesses to be more competitive.
Managers use of IT:
utilising the power of IT systems to
- simplify business process
- Acquire, Analyse, and Manage data relevant to the business.
Technology must serve Business Needs, Not the other way around.
- Because, Business
Knowledge is Driven from Information,
- Analyse Data is to interpret data and put it into context.
the IT is to understand how
it function and how it can best serve your business. How to reduce Cost & Time
and increase Sales (Profitability). How it evolve & Change, its limitations
& its failures (security).
Process can become Static
& Inflexible, while Business Needs changes all the time.
- Modern IT
Systems, provide Solutions,
therefore, an organization must be solution oriented. Hence, IT Managers Analyse Current
Business Situations Consistently, to determine whether business needs has changed Internally
(employees, process, new technology) and Externally (Customers needs, Market needs).
- Owners must create efficient ownership of technology & should focus on using IT to gain competitive advantage. Allocating Resources,
acceptance, & the human element.
- Managers therefore must anticipate future
changes and how this will affect their business and how they
can best benefit from future changes.
- Managers, must make Sure that systems are truly Effective
in meeting Needs.
- Today IT systems are being driven by Internet Technology.
Management Information Systems (MIS) are information systems, typically computer-based, that are used within an organization. WordNet describes an information system as "a system consisting of the network of all communication channels used within
an organization". A management information system may also be defined as "a system that collects and processes data (information)
and provides it to managers at all levels who use it for decision making, planning, program implementation, and control."
An information system
is comprised of all the components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data or information. It usually includes hardware, software, people, communications systems such as telephone lines, and the data itself. The activities involved include
inputting data, processing of data into information, storage of data and information, and the production of outputs such as
As an area of study it is
commonly referred to as information technology
management. The study of information systems is usually a commerce and business administration discipline, and frequently involves software engineering, but also distinguishes itself by concentrating on the integration of computer systems with the aims of the
organization. The area of study should not be confused with Computer Science which is more theoretical and mathematical in nature or with Computer Engineering which is more engineering.
In business, information
systems support business processes and operations, decision-making, and competitive strategies.
Information technology management is a combination of two branches of study,
technology and Management. This aims at achieving the goals and objectives of an organisation
Also called IT management,
this name is a common business function within corporations. Strictly speaking, there are two incarnations to this definition.
One implies the management of a collection of systems, infrastructure, and information that resides on them. Another implies
the management of Information Technologies as a business function.
The first definition is the
subject of technical manuals and publications of various information technologies providers; while the second definition stems
from the discussion and formation of ITIL.
The ITIL has been in practice
throughout regions of the world mainly conducted by IT service providers consulting companies. The relative paucity in the
use of the best practice set can be attributed to a lack awareness among IT pratitioners. However the lack of ready-to-use
tools also presents a significant barrier.
Some organizations that value
such practices tend to engage consultants to introduce the practice. Such implementations can conflict with the home-grown
culture due to a lack of internal buy-in. Other organizations implement the practices by spending resources to develop in-house
Most in-house developed tools
tend to focus on one or a few specific areas where the orgnizations feel the most pains. To reap the full advantages, tools
will need to be integrated with the organization's IT data in the center.
A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of operations or events, possibly taking up time, space, expertise
or other resource, which produces some outcome. A process may be identified by the changes it creates in the properties of
one or more objects under its influence.
Procedure: a particular
course of action intended to achieve a result; "the procedure of obtaining a driver's license"; "it was a process of trial
When something is subject
to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition; "process cheese";
"process hair"; "treat the water so it can be drunk"; "treat the lawn with chemicals" ; "treat an oil spill"
Process management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance
of a process, especially in the sense of business process, often confused with reengineering.
is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define, visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to meet customer requirements profitably.
A business process
is a recipe for achieving a commercial result. Each business process has inputs, method and outputs. The inputs are a pre-requisite that must be in place before the method
can be put into practice. When the method is applied to the inputs, then certain outputs will be created.
A business process
is a collection of related structural activities that produce something of value to the organization, its stake holders or
its customers. It is, for example, the process through which an organization realizes its services to its customers.
A business process can be
part of a larger, encompassing process and can include other business processes that have to be included in its method. In
that context a business process can be viewed at various levels of granularity. The linkage of business process with value
generation leads some practitioners to view business processes as the workflows which realize an organization's use cases.
Reengineering (or re-engineering)is the radical redesign of an organization's processes, especially its business processes. Rather than organizing a firm into functional specialties (like production, accounting, marketing, etc.) and
looking at the tasks that each function performs, we should, according to the reengineering theory, be looking at complete
processes from materials acquisition, to production, to marketing and distribution. The firm should be re-engineered into
a series of processes.
The main proponents
of re-engineering were Michael Hammer and James Champy. In a series of books including Reengineering the Corporation,
Reengineering Management, and The Agenda, they argue that far too much time is wasted passing-on tasks from
one department to another. They claim that it is far more efficient to appoint a team who are responsible for all the tasks
in the process. In The Agenda they extend the argument to include suppliers, distributors, and other business partners.
is the basis for many recent developments in management. Many recent management information
systems developments aim to integrate a wide number of business functions.